The significant accounting policies adopted in the preparation of the consolidated annual financial statements and Company annual financial statements are set out on the following pages. These policies have been consistently applied to all the periods presented unless otherwise stated.
Basis of preparation
The consolidated annual financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the framework concepts and the recognition and measurement criteria of IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (‘IASB’), the SAICA Financial Reporting Guides as issued by the Accounting Practices Committee and Financial Reporting Pronouncements as issued by the Financial Reporting Standards Council (‘FRSC’), the Listings Requirements of the JSE and the Companies Act of South Africa, and have been prepared under the historical cost convention, as modified by the revaluation to fair value of certain financial instruments and investment properties as described in the accounting policies below. The term IFRS includes International Financial Reporting Standards and interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (‘IFRIC’) or the former Standing Interpretations Committee (‘SIC’). The standards referred to are set by the IASB.
The financial statements are presented in Rand and are rounded to the nearest thousand, unless otherwise stated.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise judgement in the process of applying the Group’s accounting policies. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements, are disclosed in note 2.
Changes in accounting policies
The Group has adopted all the new, revised or amended accounting pronouncements as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (‘IASB’) which were effective for the Group from 1 April 2019. In particular, the following standards had an impact on the Group’s financial statements:
Amendment to IFRS 9 Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation
The narrow-scope amendment covers two issues:
- the amendments allow companies to measure particular prepayable financial assets with so-called negative compensation at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income if a specified condition is met instead of at fair value through profit or loss. It is likely to have the biggest impact on banks and other financial services entities;
- how to account for the modification of a financial liability. The amendment confirms that most such modifications will result in immediate recognition of a gain or loss. This is a change from common practice under IAS 39 today and will affect all kinds of entities that have renegotiated borrowings.
The effective date of the amendment is for years beginning on or after 1 January 2019 and the Company has adopted the amendment for the first time in the 2020 annual financial statements.
The amendment has no impact on the Group.
Annual Improvements to IFRS 2015 – 2017 cycle: Amendments to IAS 23 Borrowing Costs
The amendment specifies that when determining the weighted average borrowing rate for purposes of capitalising borrowing costs, the calculation excludes borrowings which have been made specifically for the purposes of obtaining a qualifying asset, but only until substantially all the activities necessary to prepare the asset for its intended use or sale are complete.
The effective date of the amendment is for years beginning on or after 1 January 2019.
The Company has adopted the amendment for the first time in the 2020 annual financial statements; however, it has not had any impact on the 2020 annual financial statements.
IFRIC 23 Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments
The effective date of the interpretation is for years beginning on or after 1 January 2019.
The interpretation clarifies how to apply the recognition and measurement requirements in IAS 12 when there is uncertainty over income tax treatments.
IFRIC 23, uncertainty over income tax treatments, is expected to have no impact on the Group.
IFRS 16 Leases
IFRS 16 Leases is a new standard which replaces IAS 17 Leases, and introduces a single lessee accounting model. The main changes arising from the issue of IFRS 16 which are likely to impact the Company are as follows:
Where the Company is a lessee:
- Lessees are required to recognise a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases, except short-term leases or leases where the underlying asset has a low value, which are expensed on a straight-line or other systematic basis.
- The cost of the right-of-use asset includes, where appropriate, the initial amount of the lease liability; lease payments made prior to commencement of the lease less incentives received; initial direct costs of the lessee; and an estimate for any provision for dismantling, restoration and removal related to the underlying asset.
- The lease liability takes into consideration, where appropriate, fixed and variable lease payments; residual value guarantees to be made by the lessee; exercise price of purchase options; and payments of penalties for terminating the lease.
- The right-of-use asset is subsequently measured on the cost model at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment and adjusted for any re-measurement of the lease liability. However, right-of-use assets are measured at fair value when they meet the definition of investment property and all other investment property is accounted for on the fair value model. If a right-of-use asset relates to a class of property, plant and equipment which is measured on the revaluation model, then that right-of-use asset may be measured on the revaluation model.
- The lease liability is subsequently increased by interest, reduced by lease payments and re-measured for reassessments or modifications.
- Re-measurements of lease liabilities are effected against right-of-use assets, unless the assets have been reduced to nil, in which case further adjustments are recognised in profit or loss.
- The lease liability is re-measured by discounting revised payments at a revised rate when there is a change in the lease term or a change in the assessment of an option to purchase the underlying asset.
- The lease liability is re-measured by discounting revised lease payments at the original discount rate when there is a change in the amounts expected to be paid in a residual value guarantee or when there is a change in future payments because of a change in index or rate used to determine those payments.
- Certain lease modifications are accounted for as separate leases. When lease modifications which decrease the scope of the lease are not required to be accounted for as separate leases, then the lessee re-measures the lease liability by decreasing the carrying amount of the right-of-lease asset to reflect the full or partial termination of the lease. Any gain or loss relating to the full or partial termination of the lease is recognised in profit or loss. For all other lease modifications which are not required to be accounted for as separate leases, the lessee re-measures the lease liability by making a corresponding adjustment to the right-of-use asset.
- Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities should be presented separately from other assets and liabilities. If not, then the line item in which they are included must be disclosed. This does not apply to right-of-use assets meeting the definition of investment property which must be presented within investment property. IFRS 16 contains different disclosure requirements compared to IAS 17 Leases.
Where the Company is a lessor:
- Accounting for leases by lessors remains similar to the provisions of IAS 17 in that leases are classified as either finance leases or operating leases. Lease classification is reassessed only if there has been a modification.
- A modification is required to be accounted for as a separate lease if it both increases the scope of the lease by adding the right to use one or more underlying assets; and the increase in consideration is commensurate to the stand alone price of the increase in scope.
- If a finance lease is modified, and the modification would not qualify as a separate lease, but the lease would have been an operating lease if the modification was in effect from inception, then the modification is accounted for as a separate lease. In addition, the carrying amount of the underlying asset shall be measured as the net investment in the lease immediately before the effective date of the modification. IFRS 9 is applied to all other modifications not required to be treated as a separate lease.
- Modifications to operating leases are required to be accounted for as new leases from the effective date of the modification. Changes have also been made to the disclosure requirements of leases in the lessor’s financial statements.
Sale and leaseback transactions:
- In the event of a sale and leaseback transaction, the requirements of IFRS 15 are applied to consider whether a performance obligation is satisfied to determine whether the transfer of the asset is accounted for as the sale of an asset.
- If the transfer meets the requirements to be recognised as a sale, the seller-lessee must measure the new right-of-use asset at the proportion of the previous carrying amount of the asset that relates to the right-of-use retained. The buyer-lessor accounts for the purchase by applying applicable standards and for the lease by applying IFRS 16.
- If the fair value of consideration for the sale is not equal to the fair value of the asset, then IFRS 16 requires adjustments to be made to the sale proceeds. When the transfer of the asset is not a sale, then the seller-lessee continues to recognise the transferred asset and recognises a financial liability equal to the transfer proceeds. The buyer-lessor recognises a financial asset equal to the transfer proceeds.
The effective date of the standard is for years beginning on or after 1 January 2019 and the Company has adopted the standard for the first time in the 2020 annual financial statements.
As the Group is a lessor, the new standard has not a had a material impact on the annual financial statements.
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Group’s executive committee, who are the Group’s chief operating decision-makers. The Group’s executive committee reviews the Group’s internal reporting in order to assess performance and allocate resources. Management has determined the operating segments based on the reports reviewed by the Group’s executive committee which are used to make strategic decisions and are disclosed in note 16.
Basis of consolidation and business combinations
The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of subsidiaries and associates owned by the Company.
Subsidiaries are all entities (including structured entities) over which the Group has control. The Group controls an entity when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Where the Group’s interest in subsidiaries is less than 100%, the share attributable to outside shareholders is reflected in non‑controlling interests. Subsidiaries are included in the financial statements from the date control commences until the date control ceases. Increases in fair value of assets that occur on the Group obtaining control, for nil consideration, of an entity previously accounted for as an associate or joint venture is transferred to a reserve called ‘surplus arising on change in control’.
The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred and the equity interests issued by the Group. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement. Acquisition‑related costs are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date.
Intragroup balances, and any unrealised gains or losses or income and expenses arising from intragroup transactions, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.
An investment is considered to be an associate when significant influence is exercised by the Company. The existence of significant influence is evidenced by:
- Representation on the Board of Directors or equivalent governing body of the investee.
- Participation in the policy-making process.
- Material transactions between the Company and the investee.
- Interchange of managerial personnel.
- Provision of essential technical information.
The Group’s share of its associates’ post-acquisition profits or losses is recognised in the income statement, and its share of post-acquisition reserve movements in other comprehensive income is recognised in other comprehensive income with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment. When the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the investee, including any other unsecured receivables, the Group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate or joint venture.
The Group determines at each reporting date whether there is any objective evidence that the investment in the associate is impaired. If this is the case, the Group calculates the amount of impairment as the difference between the recoverable amount of the investee and its carrying value and recognises the amount immediately in profit or loss.
Some of the Group’s associates have different local statutory accounting reference dates. These are equity accounted using management prepared information on a basis coterminous with the Group’s accounting reference date. Where management prepared information is at a different date from that of the Group’s, the Group equity accounts that information, but takes into account any changes in the subsequent period to 31 March that would materially affect the results.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the investee. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred.
Accounting policies of associates have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
Furniture, fittings and equipment
Furniture, fittings and equipment are stated at cost net of accumulated depreciation and any impairment losses.
Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the assets. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying value or recognised as a separate asset as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the specific asset will flow to the Group and the cost can be measured reliably. Repairs and maintenance costs are charged to profit or loss during the financial period in which they are incurred.
Profit or loss on disposal
The profit or loss on the disposal of an asset is the difference between the disposal proceeds and the net book amount of the asset and is accounted for during the period in which the asset is disposed of.
Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and where companies in the Group occupy no or an insignificant portion, is classified as investment property. Investment property also includes property that is being constructed or developed for future use. The nature of these properties is mostly hotels and includes furniture, fixtures and equipment and the underlying letting enterprise.
Investment property, including property that is being constructed or developed for future use, is stated at fair value. Gains or losses arising on changes in the fair value are recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Properties are initially recognised at cost on acquisition, which comprises the purchase price and includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the property. Subsequent costs are included in the property’s carrying value or recognised as a separate asset as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the specific asset will flow to the Group and the cost can be measured reliably.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial assets are recognised when the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the respective arrangement. Such assets consist of cash, equity instruments, a contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset, or a contractual right to exchange financial instruments with another entity on potentially favourable terms. Financial assets are derecognised when the right to receive cash flows from the asset has expired or has been transferred and the Group has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership.
Financial liabilities are recognised when there is an obligation to transfer benefits and that obligation is a contractual liability to deliver cash or another financial asset or to exchange financial instruments with another entity on potentially unfavourable terms. Financial liabilities are derecognised when they are extinguished, that is discharged, cancelled or expired.
Finance costs are charged against income in the year in which they accrue using the effective interest rate method. Premiums or discounts arising from the difference between the net proceeds of financial instruments purchased or issued and the amounts receivable or repayable at maturity are included in the effective interest calculation and taken to finance costs over the life of the instrument.
The Group classifies its financial assets in the following categories: at fair value through profit or loss and financial assets at amortised cost. The classification depends on the purpose for which the financial assets were acquired. In accordance with IFRS 9, the Group applies two criteria when classifying and measuring the financial assets, namely the business model for managing the financial asset and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset. Management determines the classification of its financial assets at initial recognition.
Financial instruments designated as at fair value through profit or loss
Financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss are financial assets held for trading and/or designated by the entity upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. A financial asset is classified in this category if acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the short term or if so designated by management.
Financial assets at amortised cost
Financial assets at amortised cost consist of assets which are held to collect the contractual cash flows, which consist solely of payments of principal and interest.
They are included in current assets (trade and other receivables), except for maturities of greater than 12 months after the balance sheet date which are classified as non-current assets.
Purchases and sales of investments are recognised on the date on which the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset.
Trade and other receivables
Trade and other receivables are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost less provision for impairment.
Trade and other payables
Trade payables are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Trade payables are presented as current on the face of the balance sheet, unless there is an unconditional right to defer payment beyond 12 months.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, bank deposits and other short-term highly liquid investments. Cash and cash equivalents are measured at amortised cost which is equivalent to fair value.
Offsetting financial instruments
Where a legally enforceable right exists to set off recognised amounts of financial assets and liabilities and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously, which are in determinable monetary amounts, the relevant financial assets and liabilities are offset. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or counterparty.
Impairment of financial assets
The Group applies IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, and uses the simplified approach to measure expected credit losses for all financial assets. However, this had an insignificant impact on the Group’s numbers. In addition, there have been no significant historic issues or losses relating to the collectability of these assets.
The loss considerations for financial assets are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected loss rates. The Company uses judgement in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation based on the Company’s past history, existing market conditions, as well as forward-looking estimates at the end of each reporting period.
All of the disclosures required for the expected credit loss measurement have not been included as the impairment is not considered to be material in respect of the Company’s financial assets carried at amortised cost.
Derivative financial assets and financial liabilities
Derivative financial assets and financial liabilities are financial instruments whose value changes in response to an underlying variable, require little or no initial investment and are settled in the future.
Derivative financial assets and liabilities are analysed between current and non‑current assets and liabilities on the face of the balance sheet, depending on when they are expected to mature.
For derivatives that are not designated to have a hedging relationship, all fair value movements thereon are recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Non-current assets held for sale
Non-current assets held for sale are those non-current assets of which the carrying amount will be recovered principally through sale rather than use. These non-current assets are available for immediate sale in their present condition, subject only to terms that are usual for the sale of such assets, and the sale is probable within a year as management is committed to a plan to dispose of the non-current assets, actively market them, and expect that these assets will be sold within a year.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options, or for the acquisition of a business, are shown in equity as a deduction from the proceeds.
Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation, whether legal or constructive, as a result of a past event for which it is probable that a transfer of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.
Acquisition of assets under common control
Transactions in which assets or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party before and after the transaction and where that control is not transitory, are referred to as common control transactions. Where a transaction meets the definition of a common control transaction, predecessor accounting is applied. Any costs directly attributable to the acquisition are written off to reserves.
Predecessor accounting values assets and liabilities using the existing carrying value on the effective date with no goodwill or bargain purchase price being recognised. Any excess/deficit of the purchase price, over the pre-combination recorded ultimate holding company’s carrying values, is adjusted directly to equity.
Revenue from the letting of investment property comprises rentals (excluding VAT) recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Contingent (variable) rentals, including rentals from parking income and rentals from advertising, are included in revenue when the amounts can be reliably measured and the inflow of economic benefits are considered probable.
Interest earned on cash invested with financial institutions is recognised on an accrual basis using the effective interest method.
Recoveries of costs from lessees
Where the Group merely acts as an agent and makes payment of these costs on behalf of lessees, these are offset against the relevant costs.
Finance costs are costs incurred on funds borrowed. These are expensed in the period in which they are incurred using the effective interest method.
Income tax for the year comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to business combinations, or items recognised directly in equity or other comprehensive income.
Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at reporting date, and any adjustments to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognised for the following temporary differences: initial recognition of assets and liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination, where the initial recognition affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss and on differences relating to investments in subsidiaries and joint ventures to the extent that the parent company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and they will probably not reverse in the foreseeable future. In addition, deferred tax is not recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of goodwill.
A deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the asset can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable group, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realised simultaneously.
In respect of REIT assets and liabilities (investment properties) the measurement of deferred tax is based on a rebuttable presumption that the amount of the investment property will be recovered entirely through sale. Capital gains or losses from property sold by a REIT are disregarded and the rate relevant to recoupments is 28%. Investment properties are held as long-term income-generating assets. Therefore, should any property no longer meet the Company’s investment criteria and be sold, any profits or losses will be capital in nature and will be taxed at rates applicable to capital gains (currently nil). Allowances previously claimed will be recouped on sale. Where an accumulated loss is available to shield this recoupment, a deferred tax asset is raised.
Deferred tax is provided based on the expected manner of realisation, taking into account the entities’ expectation that it will pay a dividend and will receive a tax deduction, making it in substance exempt.
Dividend distributions to the Company’s shareholders are recognised as a liability in the Group’s financial statements in the period in which the dividends are approved by the Company’s Board of Directors.
Short-term employee benefits are recognised in the period in which they are incurred.
Long-term benefits, which have been recently implemented, are recognised at the fair value of the liability incurred and are expensed when consumed. The liability is remeasured at each balance sheet date to its fair value, with all changes recognised immediately in profit or loss. Allocations vest in full three years after date of allocation.
The fair value of the long-term incentive plan liability is determined at each balance sheet date by reference to the parent entity’s share price. This is adjusted for management’s best estimate of the appreciation, bonus and units expected to vest.